Abstract. The disquieting effects of solar storms on Earth and to spacecraft it orbits include disruptions to telecommunications from on-orbit satellites to ground stations, power grid “blackouts”, and initiating triggers in earthquakes. The need to protect Earth from the most intense forms of space weather — great bursts of electromagnetic energy and particles streaming from the Sun- require costly replacement hardware spares for infrastructural recovery. However, greater the need is for more accurate and timely forecasts to prepare for impending space weather events. Characterization of space weather and their sources informs the technologies and operational strategies for risk management of…

Ronald H Freeman, PhD

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